1/24/2017 - 10:13 AM


Python.Modules.Numpy #python #Python #Modules #PythonModules #Numpy #numpy #numerical


1. Basic operations                     : Create numpy arrays, subsetting, access
2. 2D arrays                            : Ways to construct and access 2D arrays
3. Statistics                           : Ways to calculate statistics for datasets
4. Generating numbers / distribution    : Ways to create datasets based on distribution
5.                    : Function that applies calculation to all array elements
6.                      : Generate text file with numpy genfromtxt.


import numpy as np

l = [ [1,2,3], [3,4,2], [2,3,7], [1,2,2], [4,1,3] ]

np_l = np.array(l)
print ("Our array is : " + str(np_l))

print ("Second column of array is : " + str(np_l[:,1]))

print ("Average of second column is : " + str(np_l[:,1].mean()))
print ("Average of second column is : " + str(np.mean(np_l[:,1])))
print ("Median of second column is : " + str(np.median(np_l[:,1])))

print ("Correlation Pearson  is : " + str(np.corrcoef(np_l[:,0],np_l[:,1])))
print ("Correlation is : " + str(np.correlate(np_l[:,0],np_l[:,1])))
print ("Covariance matrix is :" + str(np.cov(np_l[:,0],np_l[:,1])))

print ("Standard deviation is : " + str(np.std(np_l[:,0])))
print ("Variance is is : " + str(np.var(np_l[:,0])))
# How to sample normal distribution to creates big sets of data
# depending on distribution

bin = np.random.binomial(10, 0.5, 30)
print (bin)

geo = np.random.geometric(0.5, 30)

expo = np.random.exponential(10, 10)

normal = np.random.normal(5,1,30)
print (normal)
# Import statement with assignment, now we can call on numpy as np
import numpy as np

# By using numpy arrays we can perform quick calculations 
# between array elements

# Standard list declaration
height = [ 1, 2, 31, 4, 4 - 2 ]
weight = [ 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 ]
alt = [ 1.5, 2.5, 3, 4.5, 5 ]

# List conversion to numpy array
# This is how we convert a list into a numpy array
np_height = np.array(height)
np_weight = np.array(weight)

# Perform the calculation, element wise
bmi = np_height / np_weight ** 2
print (bmi)


print ("Basic example : ")    
print (height + weight)
print (np_height + np_weight)
print (height * 2)
print (np_height * 2)
# boolean operations
print ("BOOLEAN")
print (np_height > np_weight)
print (np_height == 4)

# As we see + and * operate different on numpy arrays

print (np_height[1])
print (np_height[1:])
print (np_height[:1])
print (np_height[1:3])
print (np_height[::-1])

# Instead of a slice we can insert a condition in the [] 
# and we get filtered results out
print (np_height[np_height > 2])

# We can also assig nit like this:
fixed_height = np_height > 2 # This will output a [ T, F , T, F ] array
print ("FIXED HEIGHT IS" + str(fixed_height))
print ("FIXED HEIGHT IS" + str(np_height[fixed_height]))

# The same would not work for a normal list
#print (height[height > 2])

# n = n-directional array

def func(x, y):
    Token function defined for calc purposes
    return x * y

def func2(x, y):
    Token function defined for calc purposes
    return y - x ** 2    
def func3(x, y):
    Token boolean function used for calc purposes
    return x > y
def calc_array(list1, list2, f):
    Function: calc_array
    Description: Element-wise calculations in lists
    Input: list1, list2, function
    Output: f(list1, list2)
    Usage: print (calc_array(height, weight, func))
    Notes: Lists must be of the same size
    import numpy as np
    flist1 = np.array(list1)
    flist2 = np.array(list2)
    return f(flist1, flist2)
print (calc_array(height, weight, func))
print (calc_array(height, weight, func2))
print (calc_array(height, weight, func3))
print (calc_array(height, alt, func))
b = (calc_array(height, alt, func))
print (type(b[1]))

import numpy as np


lista = [ [1,2,3],[4,5,6],[7,8,9] ]

# We can create a 2D numpy array by converting a list of lists
np_2d = np.array([[1,2,3],[4,5,6]])
print (np_2d)

# .shape method gives us the sizing of the n-dimensional array
print (np_2d.shape)

# Subsetting and selecting elements out of 2d array, same as list of lists
print (np_2d[0][1])
# This only works for numpy arrays
print (np_2d[0,1])
print (lista[0][1])
#print (lista[0,1])

# Advanced subsetting
# The below will pick from both rows, the second and third element
print (np_2d[:,1:3])
# The below will get all rows
print (np_2d[0:2,:])

x = np.array([[1, 2, 3],
              [1, 2, 3]])
y = np.array([[1, 1, 1],
              [1, 2, 3]])
z = x - y

print (z)

# Create baseball, a list of lists
baseball = [[180, 78.4],
            [215, 102.7],
            [210, 98.5],
            [188, 75.2]]

# Create a 2D Numpy array from baseball: np_baseball
np_baseball = np.array(baseball)

# Print out the type of np_baseball
print (type(np_baseball))

# Print out the shape of np_baseball
print (np_baseball.shape)


# baseball is available as a regular list of lists
# update is available as 2D Numpy array

# Import numpy package
import numpy as np

# Create np_baseball (3 cols)
np_baseball = np.array(baseball)

# Print out addition of np_baseball and update
# Create Numpy array: conversion
conversion = np.array([0.0254, 0.453592, 1 ])

# Print out product of np_baseball and conversion
#print (np_baseball * conversion)

import numpy as np
store = [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2]
cost = [96, 83, 95, 98, 81, 88]
np_cols = np.column_stack((store, cost))

Sample Output

[[ 1 96]
 [ 1 83]
 [ 1 95]
 [ 2 98]
 [ 2 81]
 [ 2 88]]
numpy.genfromtxt(fname, dtype=<type 'float'>, comments='#', delimiter=None, skiprows=0, skip_header=0, skip_footer=0, converters=None, missing='', missing_values=None, filling_values=None, usecols=None, names=None, excludelist=None, deletechars=None, replace_space='_', autostrip=False, case_sensitive=True, defaultfmt='f%i', unpack=None, usemask=False, loose=True, invalid_raise=True)[source]
Load data from a text file, with missing values handled as specified.

Each line past the first skip_header lines is split at the delimiter character, and characters following the comments character are discarded.

fname : file or str

File, filename, or generator to read. If the filename extension is gz or bz2, the file is first decompressed. Note that generators must return byte strings in Python 3k.

dtype : dtype, optional

Data type of the resulting array. If None, the dtypes will be determined by the contents of each column, individually.

comments : str, optional

The character used to indicate the start of a comment. All the characters occurring on a line after a comment are discarded

delimiter : str, int, or sequence, optional

The string used to separate values. By default, any consecutive whitespaces act as delimiter. An integer or sequence of integers can also be provided as width(s) of each field.

skip_rows : int, optional

skip_rows was deprecated in numpy 1.5, and will be removed in numpy 2.0. Please use skip_header instead.

skip_header : int, optional

The number of lines to skip at the beginning of the file.

skip_footer : int, optional

The number of lines to skip at the end of the file.

converters : variable, optional

The set of functions that convert the data of a column to a value. The converters can also be used to provide a default value for missing data: converters = {3: lambda s: float(s or 0)}.

missing : variable, optional

missing was deprecated in numpy 1.5, and will be removed in numpy 2.0. Please use missing_values instead.

missing_values : variable, optional

The set of strings corresponding to missing data.

filling_values : variable, optional

The set of values to be used as default when the data are missing.

usecols : sequence, optional

Which columns to read, with 0 being the first. For example, usecols = (1, 4, 5) will extract the 2nd, 5th and 6th columns.

names : {None, True, str, sequence}, optional

If names is True, the field names are read from the first valid line after the first skip_header lines. If names is a sequence or a single-string of comma-separated names, the names will be used to define the field names in a structured dtype. If names is None, the names of the dtype fields will be used, if any.

excludelist : sequence, optional

A list of names to exclude. This list is appended to the default list [‘return’,’file’,’print’]. Excluded names are appended an underscore: for example, file would become file_.

deletechars : str, optional

A string combining invalid characters that must be deleted from the names.

defaultfmt : str, optional

A format used to define default field names, such as “f%i” or “f_%02i”.

autostrip : bool, optional

Whether to automatically strip white spaces from the variables.

replace_space : char, optional

Character(s) used in replacement of white spaces in the variables names. By default, use a ‘_’.

case_sensitive : {True, False, ‘upper’, ‘lower’}, optional

If True, field names are case sensitive. If False or ‘upper’, field names are converted to upper case. If ‘lower’, field names are converted to lower case.

unpack : bool, optional

If True, the returned array is transposed, so that arguments may be unpacked using x, y, z = loadtxt(...)

usemask : bool, optional

If True, return a masked array. If False, return a regular array.

loose : bool, optional

If True, do not raise errors for invalid values.

invalid_raise : bool, optional

If True, an exception is raised if an inconsistency is detected in the number of columns. If False, a warning is emitted and the offending lines are skipped.

out : ndarray

Data read from the text file. If usemask is True, this is a masked array.

See also
equivalent function when no data is missing.

When spaces are used as delimiters, or when no delimiter has been given as input, there should not be any missing data between two fields.
When the variables are named (either by a flexible dtype or with names, there must not be any header in the file (else a ValueError exception is raised).
Individual values are not stripped of spaces by default. When using a custom converter, make sure the function does remove spaces.


NumPy v1.19 Manual
NumPy Tutorials
NumPy basics
I/O with NumPy
Table of Contents
Importing data with genfromtxt
Defining the input
Splitting the lines into columns
The delimiter argument
The autostrip argument
The comments argument
Skipping lines and choosing columns
The skip_header and skip_footer arguments
The usecols argument
Choosing the data type
Setting the names
The names argument
The defaultfmt argument
Validating names
Tweaking the conversion
The converters argument
Using missing and filling values
Shortcut functions
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Importing data with genfromtxt
NumPy provides several functions to create arrays from tabular data. We focus here on the genfromtxt function.

In a nutshell, genfromtxt runs two main loops. The first loop converts each line of the file in a sequence of strings. The second loop converts each string to the appropriate data type. This mechanism is slower than a single loop, but gives more flexibility. In particular, genfromtxt is able to take missing data into account, when other faster and simpler functions like loadtxt cannot.

When giving examples, we will use the following conventions:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from io import StringIO
Defining the input
The only mandatory argument of genfromtxt is the source of the data. It can be a string, a list of strings, a generator or an open file-like object with a read method, for example, a file or io.StringIO object. If a single string is provided, it is assumed to be the name of a local or remote file. If a list of strings or a generator returning strings is provided, each string is treated as one line in a file. When the URL of a remote file is passed, the file is automatically downloaded to the current directory and opened.

Recognized file types are text files and archives. Currently, the function recognizes gzip and bz2 (bzip2) archives. The type of the archive is determined from the extension of the file: if the filename ends with '.gz', a gzip archive is expected; if it ends with 'bz2', a bzip2 archive is assumed.

Splitting the lines into columns
The delimiter argument
Once the file is defined and open for reading, genfromtxt splits each non-empty line into a sequence of strings. Empty or commented lines are just skipped. The delimiter keyword is used to define how the splitting should take place.

Quite often, a single character marks the separation between columns. For example, comma-separated files (CSV) use a comma (,) or a semicolon (;) as delimiter:

>>> data = u"1, 2, 3\n4, 5, 6"
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=",")
array([[ 1.,  2.,  3.],
       [ 4.,  5.,  6.]])
Another common separator is "\t", the tabulation character. However, we are not limited to a single character, any string will do. By default, genfromtxt assumes delimiter=None, meaning that the line is split along white spaces (including tabs) and that consecutive white spaces are considered as a single white space.

Alternatively, we may be dealing with a fixed-width file, where columns are defined as a given number of characters. In that case, we need to set delimiter to a single integer (if all the columns have the same size) or to a sequence of integers (if columns can have different sizes):

>>> data = u"  1  2  3\n  4  5 67\n890123  4"
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=3)
array([[   1.,    2.,    3.],
       [   4.,    5.,   67.],
       [ 890.,  123.,    4.]])
>>> data = u"123456789\n   4  7 9\n   4567 9"
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=(4, 3, 2))
array([[ 1234.,   567.,    89.],
       [    4.,     7.,     9.],
       [    4.,   567.,     9.]])
The autostrip argument
By default, when a line is decomposed into a series of strings, the individual entries are not stripped of leading nor trailing white spaces. This behavior can be overwritten by setting the optional argument autostrip to a value of True:

>>> data = u"1, abc , 2\n 3, xxx, 4"
>>> # Without autostrip
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=",", dtype="|U5")
array([['1', ' abc ', ' 2'],
       ['3', ' xxx', ' 4']], dtype='<U5')
>>> # With autostrip
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=",", dtype="|U5", autostrip=True)
array([['1', 'abc', '2'],
       ['3', 'xxx', '4']], dtype='<U5')
The comments argument
The optional argument comments is used to define a character string that marks the beginning of a comment. By default, genfromtxt assumes comments='#'. The comment marker may occur anywhere on the line. Any character present after the comment marker(s) is simply ignored:

>>> data = u"""#
... # Skip me !
... # Skip me too !
... 1, 2
... 3, 4
... 5, 6 #This is the third line of the data
... 7, 8
... # And here comes the last line
... 9, 0
... """
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), comments="#", delimiter=",")
array([[1., 2.],
       [3., 4.],
       [5., 6.],
       [7., 8.],
       [9., 0.]])
New in version 1.7.0: When comments is set to None, no lines are treated as comments.

There is one notable exception to this behavior: if the optional argument names=True, the first commented line will be examined for names.

Skipping lines and choosing columns
The skip_header and skip_footer arguments
The presence of a header in the file can hinder data processing. In that case, we need to use the skip_header optional argument. The values of this argument must be an integer which corresponds to the number of lines to skip at the beginning of the file, before any other action is performed. Similarly, we can skip the last n lines of the file by using the skip_footer attribute and giving it a value of n:

>>> data = u"\n".join(str(i) for i in range(10))
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data),)
array([ 0.,  1.,  2.,  3.,  4.,  5.,  6.,  7.,  8.,  9.])
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data),
...               skip_header=3, skip_footer=5)
array([ 3.,  4.])
By default, skip_header=0 and skip_footer=0, meaning that no lines are skipped.

The usecols argument
In some cases, we are not interested in all the columns of the data but only a few of them. We can select which columns to import with the usecols argument. This argument accepts a single integer or a sequence of integers corresponding to the indices of the columns to import. Remember that by convention, the first column has an index of 0. Negative integers behave the same as regular Python negative indexes.

For example, if we want to import only the first and the last columns, we can use usecols=(0, -1):

>>> data = u"1 2 3\n4 5 6"
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), usecols=(0, -1))
array([[ 1.,  3.],
       [ 4.,  6.]])
If the columns have names, we can also select which columns to import by giving their name to the usecols argument, either as a sequence of strings or a comma-separated string:

>>> data = u"1 2 3\n4 5 6"
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data),
...               names="a, b, c", usecols=("a", "c"))
array([(1.0, 3.0), (4.0, 6.0)],
      dtype=[('a', '<f8'), ('c', '<f8')])
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data),
...               names="a, b, c", usecols=("a, c"))
    array([(1.0, 3.0), (4.0, 6.0)],
          dtype=[('a', '<f8'), ('c', '<f8')])
Choosing the data type
The main way to control how the sequences of strings we have read from the file are converted to other types is to set the dtype argument. Acceptable values for this argument are:

a single type, such as dtype=float. The output will be 2D with the given dtype, unless a name has been associated with each column with the use of the names argument (see below). Note that dtype=float is the default for genfromtxt.

a sequence of types, such as dtype=(int, float, float).

a comma-separated string, such as dtype="i4,f8,|U3".

a dictionary with two keys 'names' and 'formats'.

a sequence of tuples (name, type), such as dtype=[('A', int), ('B', float)].

an existing numpy.dtype object.

the special value None. In that case, the type of the columns will be determined from the data itself (see below).

In all the cases but the first one, the output will be a 1D array with a structured dtype. This dtype has as many fields as items in the sequence. The field names are defined with the names keyword.

When dtype=None, the type of each column is determined iteratively from its data. We start by checking whether a string can be converted to a boolean (that is, if the string matches true or false in lower cases); then whether it can be converted to an integer, then to a float, then to a complex and eventually to a string. This behavior may be changed by modifying the default mapper of the StringConverter class.

The option dtype=None is provided for convenience. However, it is significantly slower than setting the dtype explicitly.

Setting the names
The names argument
A natural approach when dealing with tabular data is to allocate a name to each column. A first possibility is to use an explicit structured dtype, as mentioned previously:

>>> data = StringIO("1 2 3\n 4 5 6")
>>> np.genfromtxt(data, dtype=[(_, int) for _ in "abc"])
array([(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)],
      dtype=[('a', '<i8'), ('b', '<i8'), ('c', '<i8')])
Another simpler possibility is to use the names keyword with a sequence of strings or a comma-separated string:

>>> data = StringIO("1 2 3\n 4 5 6")
>>> np.genfromtxt(data, names="A, B, C")
array([(1.0, 2.0, 3.0), (4.0, 5.0, 6.0)],
      dtype=[('A', '<f8'), ('B', '<f8'), ('C', '<f8')])
In the example above, we used the fact that by default, dtype=float. By giving a sequence of names, we are forcing the output to a structured dtype.

We may sometimes need to define the column names from the data itself. In that case, we must use the names keyword with a value of True. The names will then be read from the first line (after the skip_header ones), even if the line is commented out:

>>> data = StringIO("So it goes\n#a b c\n1 2 3\n 4 5 6")
>>> np.genfromtxt(data, skip_header=1, names=True)
array([(1.0, 2.0, 3.0), (4.0, 5.0, 6.0)],
      dtype=[('a', '<f8'), ('b', '<f8'), ('c', '<f8')])
The default value of names is None. If we give any other value to the keyword, the new names will overwrite the field names we may have defined with the dtype:

>>> data = StringIO("1 2 3\n 4 5 6")
>>> ndtype=[('a',int), ('b', float), ('c', int)]
>>> names = ["A", "B", "C"]
>>> np.genfromtxt(data, names=names, dtype=ndtype)
array([(1, 2.0, 3), (4, 5.0, 6)],
      dtype=[('A', '<i8'), ('B', '<f8'), ('C', '<i8')])
The defaultfmt argument
If names=None but a structured dtype is expected, names are defined with the standard NumPy default of "f%i", yielding names like f0, f1 and so forth:

>>> data = StringIO("1 2 3\n 4 5 6")
>>> np.genfromtxt(data, dtype=(int, float, int))
array([(1, 2.0, 3), (4, 5.0, 6)],
      dtype=[('f0', '<i8'), ('f1', '<f8'), ('f2', '<i8')])
In the same way, if we don’t give enough names to match the length of the dtype, the missing names will be defined with this default template:

>>> data = StringIO("1 2 3\n 4 5 6")
>>> np.genfromtxt(data, dtype=(int, float, int), names="a")
array([(1, 2.0, 3), (4, 5.0, 6)],
      dtype=[('a', '<i8'), ('f0', '<f8'), ('f1', '<i8')])
We can overwrite this default with the defaultfmt argument, that takes any format string:

>>> data = StringIO("1 2 3\n 4 5 6")
>>> np.genfromtxt(data, dtype=(int, float, int), defaultfmt="var_%02i")
array([(1, 2.0, 3), (4, 5.0, 6)],
      dtype=[('var_00', '<i8'), ('var_01', '<f8'), ('var_02', '<i8')])
We need to keep in mind that defaultfmt is used only if some names are expected but not defined.

Validating names
NumPy arrays with a structured dtype can also be viewed as recarray, where a field can be accessed as if it were an attribute. For that reason, we may need to make sure that the field name doesn’t contain any space or invalid character, or that it does not correspond to the name of a standard attribute (like size or shape), which would confuse the interpreter. genfromtxt accepts three optional arguments that provide a finer control on the names:

Gives a string combining all the characters that must be deleted from the name. By default, invalid characters are ~!@#$%^&*()-=+~\|]}[{';: /?.>,<.

Gives a list of the names to exclude, such as return, file, print… If one of the input name is part of this list, an underscore character ('_') will be appended to it.

Whether the names should be case-sensitive (case_sensitive=True), converted to upper case (case_sensitive=False or case_sensitive='upper') or to lower case (case_sensitive='lower').

Tweaking the conversion
The converters argument
Usually, defining a dtype is sufficient to define how the sequence of strings must be converted. However, some additional control may sometimes be required. For example, we may want to make sure that a date in a format YYYY/MM/DD is converted to a datetime object, or that a string like xx% is properly converted to a float between 0 and 1. In such cases, we should define conversion functions with the converters arguments.

The value of this argument is typically a dictionary with column indices or column names as keys and a conversion functions as values. These conversion functions can either be actual functions or lambda functions. In any case, they should accept only a string as input and output only a single element of the wanted type.

In the following example, the second column is converted from as string representing a percentage to a float between 0 and 1:

>>> convertfunc = lambda x: float(x.strip(b"%"))/100.
>>> data = u"1, 2.3%, 45.\n6, 78.9%, 0"
>>> names = ("i", "p", "n")
>>> # General case .....
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=",", names=names)
array([(1., nan, 45.), (6., nan, 0.)],
      dtype=[('i', '<f8'), ('p', '<f8'), ('n', '<f8')])
We need to keep in mind that by default, dtype=float. A float is therefore expected for the second column. However, the strings ' 2.3%' and ' 78.9%' cannot be converted to float and we end up having np.nan instead. Let’s now use a converter:

>>> # Converted case ...
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=",", names=names,
...               converters={1: convertfunc})
array([(1.0, 0.023, 45.0), (6.0, 0.78900000000000003, 0.0)],
      dtype=[('i', '<f8'), ('p', '<f8'), ('n', '<f8')])
The same results can be obtained by using the name of the second column ("p") as key instead of its index (1):

>>> # Using a name for the converter ...
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=",", names=names,
...               converters={"p": convertfunc})
array([(1.0, 0.023, 45.0), (6.0, 0.78900000000000003, 0.0)],
      dtype=[('i', '<f8'), ('p', '<f8'), ('n', '<f8')])
Converters can also be used to provide a default for missing entries. In the following example, the converter convert transforms a stripped string into the corresponding float or into -999 if the string is empty. We need to explicitly strip the string from white spaces as it is not done by default:

>>> data = u"1, , 3\n 4, 5, 6"
>>> convert = lambda x: float(x.strip() or -999)
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), delimiter=",",
...               converters={1: convert})
array([[   1., -999.,    3.],
       [   4.,    5.,    6.]])
Using missing and filling values
Some entries may be missing in the dataset we are trying to import. In a previous example, we used a converter to transform an empty string into a float. However, user-defined converters may rapidly become cumbersome to manage.

The genfromtxt function provides two other complementary mechanisms: the missing_values argument is used to recognize missing data and a second argument, filling_values, is used to process these missing data.

By default, any empty string is marked as missing. We can also consider more complex strings, such as "N/A" or "???" to represent missing or invalid data. The missing_values argument accepts three kind of values:

a string or a comma-separated string
This string will be used as the marker for missing data for all the columns

a sequence of strings
In that case, each item is associated to a column, in order.

a dictionary
Values of the dictionary are strings or sequence of strings. The corresponding keys can be column indices (integers) or column names (strings). In addition, the special key None can be used to define a default applicable to all columns.

We know how to recognize missing data, but we still need to provide a value for these missing entries. By default, this value is determined from the expected dtype according to this table:

Expected type












We can get a finer control on the conversion of missing values with the filling_values optional argument. Like missing_values, this argument accepts different kind of values:

a single value
This will be the default for all columns

a sequence of values
Each entry will be the default for the corresponding column

a dictionary
Each key can be a column index or a column name, and the corresponding value should be a single object. We can use the special key None to define a default for all columns.

In the following example, we suppose that the missing values are flagged with "N/A" in the first column and by "???" in the third column. We wish to transform these missing values to 0 if they occur in the first and second column, and to -999 if they occur in the last column:

>>> data = u"N/A, 2, 3\n4, ,???"
>>> kwargs = dict(delimiter=",",
...               dtype=int,
...               names="a,b,c",
...               missing_values={0:"N/A", 'b':" ", 2:"???"},
...               filling_values={0:0, 'b':0, 2:-999})
>>> np.genfromtxt(StringIO(data), **kwargs)
array([(0, 2, 3), (4, 0, -999)],
      dtype=[('a', '<i8'), ('b', '<i8'), ('c', '<i8')])
We may also want to keep track of the occurrence of missing data by constructing a boolean mask, with True entries where data was missing and False otherwise. To do that, we just have to set the optional argument usemask to True (the default is False). The output array will then be a MaskedArray.

Shortcut functions
In addition to genfromtxt, the module provides several convenience functions derived from genfromtxt. These functions work the same way as the original, but they have different default values.

Returns a standard numpy.recarray (if usemask=False) or a MaskedRecords array (if usemaske=True). The default dtype is dtype=None, meaning that the types of each column will be automatically determined.

Like recfromtxt, but with a default delimiter=",".

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