wwright999
9/15/2017 - 9:52 PM

## Permutation

Example of a resampling permutation test to determine the statistical significance or p-value of an observed difference between the effects of a drug versus a placebo:

``````# Example from "Statistics is Easy" by Dennis Shasha and Manda Wilson
from statistics import mean
from random import shuffle

drug = [54, 73, 53, 70, 73, 68, 52, 65, 65]
placebo = [54, 51, 58, 44, 55, 52, 42, 47, 58, 46]
observed_diff = mean(drug) - mean(placebo)

n = 10000
count = 0
combined = drug + placebo
for i in range(n):
shuffle(combined)
new_diff = mean(combined[:len(drug)]) - mean(combined[len(drug):])
count += (new_diff >= observed_diff)

print(f'{n} label reshufflings produced only {count} instances with a difference')
print(f'at least as extreme as the observed difference of {observed_diff:.1f}.')
print(f'The one-sided p-value of {count / n:.4f} leads us to reject the null')
print(f'hypothesis that there is no difference between the drug and the placebo.')``````