3/9/2014 - 2:45 AM

Git Command Line Reference - Notes and reminders on Git set up and commands

Git Command Line Reference - Notes and reminders on Git set up and commands

 * Set up your Git configuration 

git config --global ""

git config --global "Your Name"

git config --global core.editor "nano"

git config --global color.ui true

 *See Git configuration 

git config --list

 * To initialise a local repository 

git init 

 * Add a file to the repo 

git add <filename>

 * Add all the files to the repo 

git add .

 * Commit the change to git 

git commit -m "Message about the change goes here" <filename>

 * Commit all changes to git of muliple files - no filenames needed

git commit -am "Message about the change goes here"

 * See the commits in a historical linear fashion

git log 

 * Git has a 3 Tier Architecture:  Working - Staging - Repo
 * Changes to files are put in a Checksum SHA-1 hash 40digit value containing parent hash, author and message.
 * HEAD is the latest commit of the checked out branch 

 * Basic Commands  

git status  /*  the command 'git status' tells which files are not added or committed from Working to Staging to Repository */

git commit -m "" /*  Commits and changes to all files that are in Staging into Repo  */

git diff /*  show changes between Working and Local Repo, no file supplied shows all files  */

git diff --staged /*  shows changes between Staged and Local Repo  */

git rm file.txt /*  will remove file from working then git commit -m "" to also remove from Repo */

git rm --cached file.txt /* leaves copy of file in Working but removes from Staging and Repo */

git mv /*  rename or move files - then git commit -m "" to move to Repo */

git commit -am "text goes here" /* adds all files straight to Repo from Staging if they have changes - meaning they skip git add */

git checkout -- file.txt /*  restore Repo file to Working Directory using current branch  */

git reset --soft HEAD^ /* restore repo file to staging */

git reset HEAD file.txt /*  Move a Stage file out of Stage back to Working */

git commit --amend -m "message" file.txt /* Change last commit to Repo (only last one can change) */

/* Reverting --soft --mixed --hard will go back to previous commits*/
git log /* gets the sha1s so you can see the coomits where you want revert  back to  */

git reset --soft sha /* changes Repo but not Staging or Working */

git reset --mixed sha /* changes Repo and Staging but not Working */

git reset --hard sha /* changes all 3 Tiers */

git clean -f /* remove untracked files from Working  */

.gitignore /* ignores files to track in Working / track the .gitignore file */

Global Ignore /* create in home folder  */ 
/* Add in  */

git config --global core.excludesfile ~/.gitignore_global /* add to gitconfig */

/* Stop tracking changes */

git rm --cached file.txt /* leaves copy in Repo and Working */

/* Track Folders changes

Add an invisble file to a folder like .gitkeeper then add and commit */

/* Commit Log  */
git ls-tree HEAD
git ls-tree master
git log --oneline
git log --author="Neil"
git log --grep="temp"

/* Show Commits */

git show dc094cb /*  show SHA1 */

/* Compare Commits */

/* Branches */

git branch /*  Show local branch name - the asterisk * is the one we are on */

git branch -r /* Shows remote branches */

git branch -a /* Shows local and remote */

git branch newbranch /* creates a new branch */

git checkout newbranch /* switch to new branch */

git checkout -b oldbranch /* creates and switches to new branch  */

git push origin newbranch /* Push new branch to remote */

/* Diff in Branches */

git diff master..otherbranch /*  shows diff */

git diff --color-words master..otherbranch /*  shows diff in color */

git branch --merged /*  shows any merged branches */

/* Rename Branch */

git branch -m oldname newname

/* Delete  Branch */

git branch -d nameofbranch

/* Merge Branch  */

git merge branchname /* be on the receiver branch to merge the other branch */

/* Merge Conflicts between the same file on 2 branches are marked in HEAD and other branch */

git merge --abort /*  Abort basically cancels the merge */

/* Manually Fix Files and commit

The Stash */

git stash save "text message here"

git stash list /* shows whats in stash */

git stash show -p stash@{0} /* Show the diff in the stash */

git stash pop stash@{0} /*  restores the stash deletes the tash */

git stash apply stash@{0} /*  restores the stash and keeps the stash */

git stash clear /*  removes all stash */

git stash drop stash@{0}

 * Remotes
 * You can push and fetch to the remote server, merge any differences - then push any new to the remote - 3 branches work remote server branch, local origin master and local master
 * Create a repo in GitHub, then add that remote to your local repo 
 * You will need to add a SSH key from your local machine and store it in GitHub - ref:

git remote add origin /*  origin can be named whatever followed by the remote */

git remote /* to show all remotes */

git remote show origin /*to see remote URL*/

git remote remove origin /* to remove remote */

git remote rm origin /* to remove remote */

/* Push to Remote from Local */

git push -u origin master /* push to remote(origin) and branch(master)

/* Cloning a GitHub Repo - create and get the URL of a new repository from GitHub, then clone that to your local repo, example below uses local repo named 'nameoffolder' */

git clone nameoffolder

/* Push to Remote from Local - more - since when we pushed the local to remote we used -u parameter then the remote branch is tracked to the local branch and we just need to use... */

git push

git push origin newbranch /* Push a branch to a remote */

/* Fetch changes from a cloned Repo */

git fetch origin /*  Pulls down latest committs from remote origin/master not origin, also pull down any branches pushed to Repo

Fetch before you work
Fetch before you pull
Fetch often */

/* Merge with origin/master */

git merge origin/master

git pull /* you can also do git pull which is = git fetch + git merge

Checkout/Copy a remote branch to local */

git branch branchname origin/branchname /*  this will bring the remote branch to local and track with the remote */

/* Delete branch */

git branch -d branchname

/* Checkout and switch branch and track to remote */

git checkout -b nontracking origin/nontracking

/* Remove remote branch */

git push origin --delete branch


git checkout path-to-file /*restores a file before it is staged */

git reset HEAD path-to-file /*if it is staged - restores a file from last commit and then git checkout path-to-file */

git checkout HEAD^ path-to-file /*if is staged and committed - restores from last commit */

git reset --hard HEAD^ /*restore prior commit */

/*Keeping the local synced with the origin after the local is reset
 * ref

git push --force origin master

git rm --cached filetoremove /* Removes a file that is committed from repo but leaves it still locally - handy when you've added something that you don't want tracked */

/* Undo last push to github - below forces  commit entered in to overwrite remote - so in case below origin is local and master is remote*/
git push -f origin last_known_good_commit:master

 * Tags
 * Adding a Tag

git tag -a v1.0.0 -m "add message here" /*tagging a commit with a version number*/

git push --tags /* pushes tag info to master remote */

/*You can checkout a commit and add a tag to that commit by checking out its SHA */

git checkout f1f4a3d /*checking out a commit - see the commit SHAS by git log */

 * Changing Tag to different commit 

 * Deleting the tag
git tag -d v1.0.0 /*change version number to suit - we are deleting it here*/
git push origin :refs/tags/v1.0.0 /*push change to remote - change 'origin' to your remote name*/

 * Adding it again - but this time it would be to the latest commit
git tag v1.0.0 /*create new tag - change version number to suit */
git push origin master --tags /* assign to latest commit  - change 'origin' to your remote name*/

 * Syncing a Fork
 * Have the Fork already created in Github

 git clone myfork /* make a local copy of the fork */
 /* cd into the repo*/
 git remote add upstream /* make an upstream remote repo */
 git remote -v /* check all the repos */

 git fetch upstream /* get the original repo */
 git checkout master /* ensure you in your local master branch */

 git rebase upstream/master /* rewrite your local master branch on top of the upstream */

 git push -f origin master /* needs -f the first time after rebase */
/* This will result in the fork master branch being 'even' with the original master branch */

 * Creating an Upstream Branch from an already added branch

git push --set-upstream dev master /* Here the remote 'dev' branch is set as Upstream to the local 'master' branch */

git branch -vv /* Shows which branch is the Upstream, if you need to change just use the preceeding command again */

 * Checking out a Fork with a certain pull request on a new branch

 git checkout -b newbranchname

 git pull theirbranchname
 * Remove Git submodule -
  git rm --cached submodule_path # delete reference to submodule HEAD (no trailing slash)
  git rm .gitmodules             # if you have more than one submodules,
                                 # you need to edit this file instead of deleting!
  rm -rf submodule_path/.git     # make sure you have backup!!
  git add submodule_path         # will add files instead of commit reference
  git commit -m "remove submodule"