1. Why do we refactor? - We refactor to both clean up our code and make it more readable, as well as making it more modular. 2. What's the difference between "refactoring" and "changing shit"? - Refactoring has a specific goal. 3. What role do patterns play in refactoring? - There are certain observable patterns that can clue us in to places that may need refactoring. 4. Why do some refactoring patterns seem to be opposites? - Because there are different patterns and refactoring methods for different situations. 5. Does refactoring always make code better? - As long as it is done in a predictable and consistent manner.